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Groundwater quality in the coastal city of Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India, has been studied from 1975 to 1992 because the industrialization of the city has resulted in environmental pollution. The groundwater quality from the soil/weathered zone and from the zones affected by industrial, urban, and seawater activities has been assessed in terms of pollution. The increase in the concentrations of Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, , Cl−, , , total alkalinity, total hardness, and total dissolved solids from 1975 to 1992 leads to a change from carbonate hardness to noncarbonate hardness in the groundwater, especially because of Cl−, , and . The study infers that the industrial activity is more responsible for groundwater contamination, causing health disorders. Measures on a groundwater-quality monitoring program are suggested for the sustainable development of the urban area.
N. Subba Rao is a Professor with more than 20 years of teaching and research experience in the field of hydrogeology, hydrogeochemistry, and environmental geology with special emphasis on water-rock interaction, groundwater quality and pollution, watershed development and management, and land-use planning and its management. He is an author of more than 75 original research articles published in refereed national and international journals.